Investigates the civilian employment experiences of female veterans of the all-volunteer force.
“This paper investigates the civilian employment experiences of female veterans of the [all-volunteer force] AVF using two sources of data. First, population-based data from the American Community Survey are used to evaluate the employment experiences of female veterans. Second, data from an audit study of civilian hiring practices provides additional insight into the experiences of women veterans transitioning from military to civilian work. [The authors] find little evidence of a veteran labor market disadvantage, either for white or black women. Both groups exhibit strong patterns of labor force attachment. Only white women show slightly lower rates of employment (among those in the labor force), while black women veterans show consistently advantageous employment profiles. These positive employment outcomes among female veterans at least partly derive from employer preference for hiring veterans over equally qualified nonveteran women” (p.i).  (Abstractor: Author)

Major Findings & Recommendations

“60 percent of white recent veterans and nearly 70 percent of recent black veterans report working in the public sector, compared with 18 percent and 27 percent of white and black veterans who have spent more than a year as veterans” (p.17-18). “Veterans serving since 9/11 show the highest labor force participation rates, the highest employment-population ratios, higher rates of employment than nonveterans and again, very high rates of public sector employment” (p. 18). “White veterans serving since 9/11 are an exception, showing lower employment (high unemployment) than nonveterans or earlier serving veterans. This result does not hold among black veterans. More than a third of white and nearly half of black recent veterans report public sector employment” (p.18). “[T]here are little to no disadvantages associated with military service among women in terms of employment. The high rates of public sector employment among veterans make it clear that regressions of earnings and wages of veterans must account for employment sector” (p.19). Audit results reveal that “[a]mong the white team[, who tested 306 employers], 7.4 percent of the military resumes elicited a callback, whereas only 4.8 percent of the high school graduate and 3.4 percent of the college graduate resumes (with equivalent work experience) received callbacks. Results among the black team [, who tested 294 employers] were much the same, with 7.5 percent of the military resumes garnering a callback compared with 5.6 percent of the high school graduate and 4.0 percent of the college graduate resumes eliciting an employer response” (p.20). Regression results reveal that “for both the black and white teams, the veteran -college graduate contrast is statistically significant, but neither the veteran-high school, nor the high school-college contrast is significant at traditional levels” (p.21). (Abstractor: Author and Website Staff)