Documents factors that contribute to unemployment of ex-offender and examines the role of self-efficacy in employment readiness with a focus on Social Cognitive Career Theory.
“Although there is extensive research about unemployment and job readiness, there is a relative lack of research concerning perceived readiness. Job readiness and self-efficacy have not yet been studied among individuals with criminal records. This research study will contribute to an understanding of self-perception in relation to job readiness for ex-offenders. It will also examine factors such as age, age of first incarceration, total time spent in prison, participation in job training, and total time employed in the last ten years.” (p. 2). (Abstractor : Author and Website Staff)

Major Findings & Recommendations

• “…There is good indication that most participants are confident in their ability to reach long term career goals” (p. 17). • “Participants noted the need for job training programs, general training, or a job readiness program. This theme of training is particularly important in that it may play a role in perceived readiness by increasing not only skills, but confidence as well” (p. 18-19). • “Employment experience (human capital) of participants was not as predictive of job readiness among ex-offenders as the literature might suggest” (p. 20). • “It was found that older ex-offenders are not as comfortable with creating a resume or emailing a resume. Age was found to be correlated with long term goals, and confidence in reaching short term goals. Analysis also showed age as associated with knowledge of how to apply personal characteristics to a future job” (p. 20-21). • “It was found that individuals who are incarcerated at an early age are less confident in searching and applying for jobs” (p. 21). • “Age of first incarceration was found to be correlated with both educational levels attained and total time employed in the last ten years. This association might be demonstrating how early involvement in the criminal justice system can impair early life skill acquisition. Because this might be a complex relationship, self-efficacy is broadly affected” (p. 21). • “A theme of discrimination was identified in the results…This feeling of discrimination is likely to be the result of systematic oppression of the formerly incarcerated within our society…..The effect on the individual should be considered by social workers when working with previously incarcerated individuals. Also, when advocating for this population, social workers should work toward institutional changes that meet the needs of this population within the judicial and correctional system. In addition, the extent of employer discrimination indicates a need for nondiscrimination laws...” (p. 24).(Abstractor: Author and Website Staff)